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An organic compound used it kill or control insects (a pesticide), derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). Carbamate esters are also called urethanes.


A positively charged ion. Opposite of Anion.


In an electrochemical cell, the electrode at which reduction takes place, or an electron is gained. Opposite of Anode.

Charge (electric)

An intrinsic characteristic of elementary particles that determines their electromagnetic interactions. The entirety of electric phenomena is a manifestation of the existence, motion, and interaction of electric charges. Charge is an amount of electrons, and can be measured in coulombs.

Claim or Health Claim

Statements of cause and effect between ingesting or otherwise taking a substance (i.e. a drug or compound) and it producing an effect claimed to treat, prevent, cure or mitigate a disease state.


Particles with a small number of atoms (≤150) are sometimes referred to as clusters, or Atomic or Quantum Clusters.

Colloid, Colloidal / Colloidal dispersion, suspension

A colloid consists of two separate phases - a dispersed phase and a continuous phase; the dispersed phase is made of particles or droplets, which are suspended and distributed evenly throughout the continuous phase; a substance microscopically dispersed throughout another substance; a suspension of particles of the proper size range to be a colloid in a continuous phase; a liquid mixture in which solid particles within a colloidal range are dispersed.

Colloidal silver

A heterogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances with one substance being silver, wherein each keeps its original properties and the solute-like, suspended solid particles remain dispersed within a liquid without settling. A colloid of silver would suspend silver particles (dispersed phase) or a silver compound, such as silver oxide, most commonly in water (continuous phase). With elemental silver or a silver compound, particles may be neutral chunks of silver or they may carry an active electrical charge; negatively charged silver in nature is extremely rare. An electrical charge would commonly be dispersed dynamically across the surface of the particle.

Colloidal stability

Particles which do not aggregate at a significant rate; the degree to which a suspension remains stable, meaning the suspended matter does not fall out of suspension, or precipitate.

Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) / Alternative Medicine

The terms "complementary medicine" or "alternative medicine" are used inter-changeably with traditional medicine in some countries. They refer to a broad set of health care practices that are not part of that country's own tradition and are not integrated into the dominant health care system. See also Medicine, Traditional Medicine.


A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. Two types of chemical bonds common in compounds are covalent bonds and Ionic bonds. The elements in any compound are always present in fixed ratios. In silver, compounds are common and their properties are known, and generally possess a higher toxicity index.


The amount of a substance per defined space or volume. Concentration usually is expressed in terms of mass per unit of volume. The mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture. See our helpful chart on size, weight and concentration at the nanoscale.


A measure of the ability of electricity to flow through a material; the ability or power to conduct or transmit heat, electricity, or sound. It is measured in Siemens or microsiemens per meter [S/m]. Opposite of Resistivity, or Resistance. A TDS meter will measure conductivity, and is commonly misused to measure concentration of homemade colloidal silver preparations.


A unit of charge. 1 coulomb represents 1 amp flowing for 1 second. Coulombs can be used to calculate rate(s) of reaction, especially in electrochemical cells.

Covalent bonds

Chemical bonds formed by sharing of electrons.

Claimed PPM

Claimed PPM