Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations in the parts-per-trillion. This highly specialized technology is used in advanced laboratories to measure concentrations at below what are considered contaminant levels. New optics systems result in a low random background and high sensitivity, making analysis down to the sub-nanogram-per-liter level feasible. See also Mass Spectrometry
Relating to or denoting chemical compounds that do not contain carbon (excluding carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanides, and carbides).
An Atom or molecule having a net electrical charge. The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st edition (2010-2011) defines an ion as an atomic or molecular particle having a net electrical charge. An electrical charge may be expressed either as positive or negative. When large structures carry a net electrical charge, such as a protein, a macromolecule or a nanoparticulate cluster, the term "charged particle" distinguishes such a complex unit from common, small ionized atoms or small molecules.
Ionization (ion formation; ionize)
The phenomenon of ionization is a physical dissociation process during which a molecular Compound reacts with a solvent and then ions form of opposing electric charge. When ionic substances dissolve, their ions are surrounded by solvent molecules (e.g. bipolar water with its dielectric constant) and are physically separated from each other. Ionization converts an Atom or molecule into an ion by changing the number of orbiting electrons versus the number of core protons. This process works differently depending on whether an ion with a positive or a negative electric charge is being produced. A positive electric charge is produced when an electron bond to an Atom or molecule absorbs enough energy from an external source to escape from the electric potential barrier that originally confined it - the amount of energy required is called the ionization potential. A negative electric charge is produced when a free electron collides with a receptive electron cloud of another Atom and is subsequently caught inside its electric potential barrier, releasing any excess energy.
ion-selective electrode (ISE) (also specific ion electrode or SIE)
Is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity or effective Concentration of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential, which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter. The voltage is dependent on the logarithm of the ionic activity, according to the Nernst equation.
A chemical bond formed by the attraction of negative and positive ions; chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one Atom or a group of atoms to another.
Compounds containing atoms associated predominantly with ionic bonding; an electrically neutral combination of ions. Examples include table salt (NaCl), which is composed of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions. Another example is silver nitrate (AgNO 3), composed of positive silver ions and negative nitrate ions.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries, and works to advance chemical sciences and contribute to the application of chemistry in the service of Humankind. The chemical nomenclature they have developed is used most frequently worldwide in science.