SaltAn ionic Compound formed by the reaction of an acid and a base. The products of the reaction of an acid and a base are a salt and water. For example, the base AgOH reacts with the acid HNO3 to form the salt AgNO3 and water; A chemical Compound consisting of an assembly of cations [+] and anions [-]; compounds with ionic chemical bonds. In solution, salts may be neutral, weakly acidic or weakly alkaline. The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st edition (2010-2011) defines a salt as an ionic Compound formed by the reaction of an acid and a base. In chemistry, such reactions are real or they are hypothetical. For example, a real salt producing chemical reaction occurs when hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a base, resulting in the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt. As another example, when hydrochloric acid (HCl) reacts with ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), a base, a salt called ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) forms. However, this is reaction is hypothetical because the chemical species called ammonium hydroxide does not actually exist as a stable entity.
Siemens (SI unit symbol: S)The unit of electric conductance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI). Conductance and admittance are the reciprocals of resistance and impedance respectively, hence one siemens is equal to the reciprocal of one ohm.
Silver saltSilver salts are either mineral salts or organic salt compounds. Simple mineral salts of silver include silver sulfide, silver fluoride, silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide etc. Complex mineral salts of silver would include silver nitrate, silver nitrite, silver sulfate, silver phosphate et.al. Organic silver salts would include silver acetate, silver aspartate, silver sulfadiazine [C10H9AgN4O 2S] etc. Silver salts can quickly overwhelm the liver and become toxic to humans. Some silver salts, such as silver nitrate, can rapidly denature proteins. Silver salts are the source of UV-light reactions within the skin or eyes manifesting as argyria or argyosis. These reactions occur when the liver becomes incapable of eliminating the silver via the normal excretory pathways. The body then ineffectively attempts to eliminate excess silver through the skin as a secondary route. In medicine, silver nitrate salt sticks or silver acetate solutions are used to cauterize superficial vessels in the nose to stop repetitious nosebleeds; silver sulfadiazine is commonly used to treat moderate and severe burns or chronic, non-healing skin lesions. Silver nitrate drops have historically been used in newborn eyes to prevent pathogenic blindness.
SolA fluid colloidal system of two or more components, e.g. a protein sol, a gold sol, an emulsion, a surfactant solution above the critical micelle concentration; a suspension of metallic particles less than 1 micron and usually less than 100 nm in diameter in a continuous liquid phase; usually a water phase.
SolutionIn chemistry, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving medium is called the solvent, and the dissolved material is called the solute. A solution is distinct from a colloid or a suspension.
SpeciesA term used to describe a general classification of a suspension, in our case, of various silver suspensions or solutions, each defined by different physical and/or chemical properties.
SpectroscopyThe study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. Spectroscopic data is often represented by a spectrum, a plot of the response of interest as a function of wavelength or frequency. This method is frequently used in elemental analysis. See also Mass Spectrometry.
StabilityResistance or the degree of resistance to chemical or physical change or disintegration over time.
Surface areaThe total area of the surface of a three-dimensional object; an idealized concept which assumes all particles in a suspension have the same geometric shape, usually assumed to be spherical. The surface area can then be calculated from this geometric model.
SuspensionThe state in which the particles of a substance are mixed with a fluid but are undissolved.